The author of the NPPA’s code of ethics as found in the NPAA website is John Long who is the
NPPA Ethics Co-Chair and Past President who wrote it in September 1999. He writes in the section called ‘Changes to photographs’ that,
‘I do not think the public cares if it is a little lie or a big lie As far as they are concerned, once the shutter has been tripped and the moment has been captured on film, in the context of news, we no longer have the right to change the content of the photo in any way. Any change to a news photo – any violation of that moment – is a lie. Big or small, any lie damages your credibility’.